Time : 2023-08-17
As a common clinical examination method, electrocardiogram can evaluate the patient's cardiac function and pathological changes by recording the waveform of cardiac electrical activity. On the ECG chart, common ECG waveforms include P waves, QRS complexes, and T waves.
1. P wave: P wave is the reflection of the depolarization process of atrial muscle on the ECG. It represents the conduction rhythm of the heart from the sinoatrial node impulse, indicating the contraction of the atria. The P wave should usually be positive, the duration should be between 0.06 and 0.12 seconds, and the amplitude should generally not exceed 2.5 millivolts.
2. QRS wave group: QRS wave group is the reflection of the depolarization process of ventricular muscle on the ECG. It marks the contraction of the ventricles. The QRS complex usually includes Q waves, R waves, and S waves. Among them, the R wave represents the part where the direction of the ventricular depolarization vector is the same as the positive direction of the vertical axis, and the Q wave and S wave represent the part where the direction of the ventricular depolarization vector is opposite to the vertical axis. Under normal circumstances, the duration of the QRS complex should be between 0.06 and 0.10 seconds.
3. T wave: T wave is the reflection of the repolarization process of ventricular muscle on the ECG. It represents the filling and systolic recovery process of the ventricles. T waves are usually positive and generally do not exceed 5 millivolts in amplitude. Abnormal T wave morphology may be related to ventricular myocardial ischemia, electrolyte disturbance or drug influence.
In addition, there are other waveforms in the ECG, such as U wave, ST segment and QT interval, etc., which also have certain clinical significance. The U wave represents a later stage in the repolarization process of ventricular myocardium, the ST segment is associated with the interval between ventricular filling and contraction, and the QT interval is the duration of ventricular depolarization.
By carefully observing and analyzing these waveforms on the electrocardiogram, doctors can evaluate the rhythm of the heart, heart rate, myocardial damage, electrolyte imbalance, and ventricular hypertrophy, and further determine whether the patient has heart disease. In clinical practice, doctors need to conduct a comprehensive analysis based on individual differences and disease characteristics to ensure accurate diagnosis and treatment.
To sum up, common ECG waveforms on ECG charts include P waves, QRS complexes, T waves, etc., which have important diagnostic value in clinic. Understanding the meaning and abnormal performance of these waveforms will help doctors accurately judge cardiac function and disease conditions, and provide patients with effective treatment measures.